Singular & Plural

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Singular and Plural Count Nouns

It’sanID card
I’mastudent
There are tenstudentshere
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Count nouns have singular ( one thing) and plural ( two or more things) forms.

Use a or an before singular count nouns only.

  • When the singular noun begins with a consonant sound, use a.
  • When the singular noun begins with a vowel sound, use an.

Spelling Rules for Forming Plural Nouns

Most plural nouns are formed by adding s:             camera → cameras      pen→ pens

For nouns ending in a vowel + y add s:                   boy→ boys

but For nouns ending in a consonant + y,

drop the y and add ies:                                            dictionary→dictionaries

For nouns ending in a vowel + o add s:                   radio→ radios

but For nouns ending in a consonant + o,

add s with some nouns and es with others:             photo → photos             potato→ potatoes

For nouns ending in the ch, sh, ss, or x sounds,

add s:                                                                        class→ classes

For nouns ending in f or fe, change it to ve + s:       knife → knives             leaf→ leaves

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ENGLISH GERUNDS

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Gerund as Subject

Gerund (Subject)VerbsObjects
Kayakinginvolvessome risks
Swimmingbuildsendurance
Not inviting himwill causeresentment

Gerund as Object

SubjectVerbGerund (Object)
TheyhateKayaking
Wewentswimming
Shedoesn’t adviseexcluding him

Gerund as Subject Complement

SubjectVerbGerund (Subject Complement)
Her sportis skiing
His problem isnot exercising

Gerund as Object Complement

SubjectVerbObjectGerund (Object complement)
Hespendstimewriting
Shefoundhimnot working

Gerund as Object of a Preposition

PrepositiojnGerund
She insistongoing outevery weekemd
He is accustomedtogivingparties
They have a reasonfornot invitingMichael
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ACTIVITIES

Rearrange the words in order to make a completed sentence.

  1. started / I / english / for / learning / four / years / almost
  2. can’t / nothing / I / doing / stand
  3. soon / look / from / We / forward / to / you / hearing
  4. arguing/ I / tired/ am / of

READING PART

‘Best’ Friends

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To me, a best friend is a person with whom we don’t have a problem being honest or vulnerable. It’s someone who will never desert you, who keeps no record of wrongs, who doesn’t spare your feelings or avoid telling you what you need to hear. I have two best friends. One is Ken, whom I met in the military. Our having gone through difficult experiences has bonded us for life. The other is Amanda. We love having long conversations that can wander everywhere and nowhere. Sometimes we talk for hours- We both love being listened to. Other times we like being together without saying much of anything. I would have a hard time living without my two best friends, but it’s important to have the others, too.

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