ADVERBS

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ADVERBS OF MANNER

These tell us how something happened or how it was done.

For example:

Manyasa walked quickly. Quickly tells us how manyasa walked.

Therefore in the sentenses below the underlined words are adverbs of manner.

1. The lorry moved slowly up the road.

2. The nurse talked softly to the sick child.

3. “Stop driving so fast” a passenger shouted angrily

4. The passengers sang loudly.

5. It rained heavily last night.

6. The children greeted one another happily.

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ADVERBS OF TIME

These tells us when sothing was done or when it happened.

For example:

last time, at lunch time, at break time, last year, yesterday

In the following sentences the underlined words are adverbs of time.

1.He saw the accident this morning

2.I willwrite the letter before lunch time.

3.We will go to washington tomorrow.

4.The Ethiopian aircraft occurred in September 2019

5.The travellers started their journey at six o’clpck.

6.Ismail will go for the driving test on friday.

ADVERBS OF PLACE

These tell us where something was done,where it happened or where it was.

For example:

Under the tree, in the middle of the road, at the back of the class

The following underlined words are the adverbs of place.

1.The injured man was lying in the middle of the road

2.He was placed at the back of the car

3.They put him on a stretcher

4.She put her watch on a shelf

5.He pushed his shoes under the table

6.The mouse was hiding behind the box

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NOUNS

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Nouns are naming words. They name people, animals, places, things or ideas.

Examples

Ismael, lion, cat, İstanbul, Toyota, computer…

TYPES OF NOUNS

There are various types of nouns:

  • Proper nouns
  • Common nouns
  • Collective nouns
  • Concrete nouns
  • Abstract nouns

PROPER NOUNS

Proper nouns are specific names.the specific name may be that of a person, an animals, a place, a thing or an idea.

Example

Washington, Peter, United Nations etc

COMMON NOUNS

These are nouns that refer to things in general.

Examples

Lake, Town, Person, Newspaper, House etc…

Consider words in the table below

Proper NounsCommon Nouns
Nairobicity/town
Michaelperson
Lake victorialake
Daily nationnewspaper
Indian oceanocean
Kenyacountry
Toyotacar

Note: Common nouns do not start with capital letters unless they appear at the beginning os a sentence.

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COLLECTIVE NOUNS

Some things can be grouped together and spoken of as one whole.the name used for them is collective nouns.

These are three classes of collective nouns

-Collective noun for people

-Collective noun for animals

-Collective nouns for things

COLLECTIVE NOUNS FOR PEOPLE

a company of actorsa troupe of dancers/minstrels
a board of directorsa bench of magistrates/bishops/imams
a gang of of labourers/thievesa tribe of natives
a bevy of girls/ladiesa school/class of pupils
a band of musicians/pilgrimsa staff of servants/teachers
a congragations of worshippers a host of angels
a posses of policemena throng of peoples
a horde of savagesa regiment of an army/soldiers
a crowd of spectatorsa batch of tourists
a battery of journalistsa crew of sailors

COLLECTIVE NOUNS FOR THINGS

a flight of steps/stairs/airplanesa heap/pile of stones
a bunch of bananas a set /kit of tool
a a library of booksa quiver of arrows
a hedge of bushesa peal of bells
a set of chinaa batch of bread
a suit of chinaa pack of cigarettes
a suit of clothesa sheaf/ears of corn
a cluster of diamonds/starsa galaxy/constallation of stars
a chest of drawersa clutch of eggs
a hail of firea bouqet/bunch of flowers
a collection of stamps/picturesa crate of fruits
a suite of furniturea stack of hay

COLLECTIVE NOUNS FOR ANIMALS

a swarm of beesa flight of swallows
a flock of birds/sheepa packof wolves/dogs
a herd of cattle/buffaloes/elphantsa brood of chickens
a shoal of fish/herring a gaggle of geese
a stud of horsesa swarm/plague of insect/locust
a litter of kittens/pups/cubsa troop of monkeys/baboons
a nest of mice/rabbits
a team of oxen
a parliament of owls
a school of whales
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