Singular & Plural

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Singular and Plural Count Nouns

It’sanID card
I’mastudent
There are tenstudentshere
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Count nouns have singular ( one thing) and plural ( two or more things) forms.

Use a or an before singular count nouns only.

  • When the singular noun begins with a consonant sound, use a.
  • When the singular noun begins with a vowel sound, use an.

Spelling Rules for Forming Plural Nouns

Most plural nouns are formed by adding s:             camera → cameras      pen→ pens

For nouns ending in a vowel + y add s:                   boy→ boys

but For nouns ending in a consonant + y,

drop the y and add ies:                                            dictionary→dictionaries

For nouns ending in a vowel + o add s:                   radio→ radios

but For nouns ending in a consonant + o,

add s with some nouns and es with others:             photo → photos             potato→ potatoes

For nouns ending in the ch, sh, ss, or x sounds,

add s:                                                                        class→ classes

For nouns ending in f or fe, change it to ve + s:       knife → knives             leaf→ leaves

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NOUNS

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Nouns are naming words. They name people, animals, places, things or ideas.

Examples

Ismael, lion, cat, İstanbul, Toyota, computer…

TYPES OF NOUNS

There are various types of nouns:

  • Proper nouns
  • Common nouns
  • Collective nouns
  • Concrete nouns
  • Abstract nouns

PROPER NOUNS

Proper nouns are specific names.the specific name may be that of a person, an animals, a place, a thing or an idea.

Example

Washington, Peter, United Nations etc

COMMON NOUNS

These are nouns that refer to things in general.

Examples

Lake, Town, Person, Newspaper, House etc…

Consider words in the table below

Proper NounsCommon Nouns
Nairobicity/town
Michaelperson
Lake victorialake
Daily nationnewspaper
Indian oceanocean
Kenyacountry
Toyotacar

Note: Common nouns do not start with capital letters unless they appear at the beginning os a sentence.

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COLLECTIVE NOUNS

Some things can be grouped together and spoken of as one whole.the name used for them is collective nouns.

These are three classes of collective nouns

-Collective noun for people

-Collective noun for animals

-Collective nouns for things

COLLECTIVE NOUNS FOR PEOPLE

a company of actorsa troupe of dancers/minstrels
a board of directorsa bench of magistrates/bishops/imams
a gang of of labourers/thievesa tribe of natives
a bevy of girls/ladiesa school/class of pupils
a band of musicians/pilgrimsa staff of servants/teachers
a congragations of worshippers a host of angels
a posses of policemena throng of peoples
a horde of savagesa regiment of an army/soldiers
a crowd of spectatorsa batch of tourists
a battery of journalistsa crew of sailors

COLLECTIVE NOUNS FOR THINGS

a flight of steps/stairs/airplanesa heap/pile of stones
a bunch of bananas a set /kit of tool
a a library of booksa quiver of arrows
a hedge of bushesa peal of bells
a set of chinaa batch of bread
a suit of chinaa pack of cigarettes
a suit of clothesa sheaf/ears of corn
a cluster of diamonds/starsa galaxy/constallation of stars
a chest of drawersa clutch of eggs
a hail of firea bouqet/bunch of flowers
a collection of stamps/picturesa crate of fruits
a suite of furniturea stack of hay

COLLECTIVE NOUNS FOR ANIMALS

a swarm of beesa flight of swallows
a flock of birds/sheepa packof wolves/dogs
a herd of cattle/buffaloes/elphantsa brood of chickens
a shoal of fish/herring a gaggle of geese
a stud of horsesa swarm/plague of insect/locust
a litter of kittens/pups/cubsa troop of monkeys/baboons
a nest of mice/rabbits
a team of oxen
a parliament of owls
a school of whales
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A / AN Poem

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An always stands

in front of a noun,

that has A, E, I, O, U

as the vowel sound.


An angry old man 

eats an egg for lunch.

Then he eats an orange

with a Munch, Munch, Munch.


A stands in front 

of all the other nouns.

All the nouns with

consonant sounds.


A happy old lady

eats a muffin for lunch

Then she eats a carrot

with a Crunch, Crunch, Crunch.

ENGLISH GERUNDS

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Gerund as Subject

Gerund (Subject)VerbsObjects
Kayakinginvolvessome risks
Swimmingbuildsendurance
Not inviting himwill causeresentment

Gerund as Object

SubjectVerbGerund (Object)
TheyhateKayaking
Wewentswimming
Shedoesn’t adviseexcluding him

Gerund as Subject Complement

SubjectVerbGerund (Subject Complement)
Her sportis skiing
His problem isnot exercising

Gerund as Object Complement

SubjectVerbObjectGerund (Object complement)
Hespendstimewriting
Shefoundhimnot working

Gerund as Object of a Preposition

PrepositiojnGerund
She insistongoing outevery weekemd
He is accustomedtogivingparties
They have a reasonfornot invitingMichael
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ACTIVITIES

Rearrange the words in order to make a completed sentence.

  1. started / I / english / for / learning / four / years / almost
  2. can’t / nothing / I / doing / stand
  3. soon / look / from / We / forward / to / you / hearing
  4. arguing/ I / tired/ am / of

READING PART

‘Best’ Friends

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To me, a best friend is a person with whom we don’t have a problem being honest or vulnerable. It’s someone who will never desert you, who keeps no record of wrongs, who doesn’t spare your feelings or avoid telling you what you need to hear. I have two best friends. One is Ken, whom I met in the military. Our having gone through difficult experiences has bonded us for life. The other is Amanda. We love having long conversations that can wander everywhere and nowhere. Sometimes we talk for hours- We both love being listened to. Other times we like being together without saying much of anything. I would have a hard time living without my two best friends, but it’s important to have the others, too.

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