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Awesome: Extraordinary , Outstanding, Splendid , Incredible. tremendous.

Intelligent: Wise , Astute , Knowledgeable , brilliant , brainy , smart, Clever.

But: However, Although , Through , yet , on the other hand , Nevertheless.

Especially: Above all , chiefly , In Particular , mainly, Principally, Exclusively.

Terrible: Hideous , appalling , Frightful , Horrendous , Atrocious, Ghastly , Dreadful.


Also: In addition, As well as , like wise , Furthermore , along with , besides, moreover.

Stupid: Foolish , Dumb, ludicrous, Laughable, futile, senseless.

Easy: Simple, Clear, Effortless, Facile , Basic, Straightforward.

Therefore: As a result, subsequently, For this reason, hence , thus , So/ so then , Consequently.

Very Good: Fantastic , Amazing, terrific , Wonderful, Incredible , Marvellous.


Big: Huge, Giant , Gigantic , Enornous, Massive, Large, Immense.

Great: Excellent, Fantastic, Wonderful , Super, Outstanding, Amazing.

Happy: Cheerful, Delighted, Glad, Joyful, Merry, Thrilled .

Small: Tiny, Miniature, Teeny, Skimpy, Wee, Minute.



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Stephanie: Actually, yes! I’ve already found a new seller. He is as sharp as a tack

Leticia: Can’t we even talk this over? After all, I’ve been working here for 9 years!

Stephanie: There is no point in arguing! Look, Leticia, I’ve  already made up my mind!

Leticia: Oh well… at least I won’t have to put up with your nonsense anymore! Good-bye to you and good-bye to this dead-end job.

Stephanie: Leave!!! Before  I lose my  temper!


at least-  the good thing is that…; Anyway, no less than.

I can’t afford to buy a car, but at least  I have a good bicycle.

They’ve run out of coffee, but at least  they still have juice.

There were at least 100 people waitting to see the actor.


After all- despite everything, the fact is…

She lied to me, but after all she is a good friend.

dead-end job- a job  that won’t lead to anything else.

Christian  worked   many dead-end jobs before finally  deciding to start his own business.

Lose one’s temper-  To become very angry

I’ve always lose my temper, when someone lie to me.

Make up one’s mind- to decide

I couldn’t make up my mind what to eat- eggs or bacon.


On point in- no reason to; it’s not  worth

There is no point  in worrying about things you can’t change.

Put up with- to endure without complaint

I don’t know how my mum puts up with her mean boss every day.

Sharp as a tack- very intelligent

Monica got a scholarship to Oxford. She is  as sharp as a tack

Talk over- to discuss

My fiancé and I spent hours talking over  the details of the wedding plan.



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These tell us how something happened or how it was done.

For example:

Manyasa walked quickly. Quickly tells us how manyasa walked.

Therefore in the sentenses below the underlined words are adverbs of manner.

1. The lorry moved slowly up the road.

2. The nurse talked softly to the sick child.

3. “Stop driving so fast” a passenger shouted angrily

4. The passengers sang loudly.

5. It rained heavily last night.

6. The children greeted one another happily.



These tells us when sothing was done or when it happened.

For example:

last time, at lunch time, at break time, last year, yesterday

In the following sentences the underlined words are adverbs of time.

1.He saw the accident this morning

2.I willwrite the letter before lunch time.

3.We will go to washington tomorrow.

4.The Ethiopian aircraft occurred in September 2019

5.The travellers started their journey at six o’clpck.

6.Ismail will go for the driving test on friday.


These tell us where something was done,where it happened or where it was.

For example:

Under the tree, in the middle of the road, at the back of the class

The following underlined words are the adverbs of place.

1.The injured man was lying in the middle of the road

2.He was placed at the back of the car

3.They put him on a stretcher

4.She put her watch on a shelf

5.He pushed his shoes under the table

6.The mouse was hiding behind the box


Singular & Plural

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Singular and Plural Count Nouns

It’sanID card
There are tenstudentshere

Count nouns have singular ( one thing) and plural ( two or more things) forms.

Use a or an before singular count nouns only.

  • When the singular noun begins with a consonant sound, use a.
  • When the singular noun begins with a vowel sound, use an.

Spelling Rules for Forming Plural Nouns

Most plural nouns are formed by adding s:             camera → cameras      pen→ pens

For nouns ending in a vowel + y add s:                   boy→ boys

but For nouns ending in a consonant + y,

drop the y and add ies:                                            dictionary→dictionaries

For nouns ending in a vowel + o add s:                   radio→ radios

but For nouns ending in a consonant + o,

add s with some nouns and es with others:             photo → photos             potato→ potatoes

For nouns ending in the ch, sh, ss, or x sounds,

add s:                                                                        class→ classes

For nouns ending in f or fe, change it to ve + s:       knife → knives             leaf→ leaves



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Nouns are naming words. They name people, animals, places, things or ideas.


Ismael, lion, cat, İstanbul, Toyota, computer…


There are various types of nouns:

  • Proper nouns
  • Common nouns
  • Collective nouns
  • Concrete nouns
  • Abstract nouns


Proper nouns are specific names.the specific name may be that of a person, an animals, a place, a thing or an idea.


Washington, Peter, United Nations etc


These are nouns that refer to things in general.


Lake, Town, Person, Newspaper, House etc…

Consider words in the table below

Proper NounsCommon Nouns
Lake victorialake
Daily nationnewspaper
Indian oceanocean

Note: Common nouns do not start with capital letters unless they appear at the beginning os a sentence.



Some things can be grouped together and spoken of as one whole.the name used for them is collective nouns.

These are three classes of collective nouns

-Collective noun for people

-Collective noun for animals

-Collective nouns for things


a company of actorsa troupe of dancers/minstrels
a board of directorsa bench of magistrates/bishops/imams
a gang of of labourers/thievesa tribe of natives
a bevy of girls/ladiesa school/class of pupils
a band of musicians/pilgrimsa staff of servants/teachers
a congragations of worshippers a host of angels
a posses of policemena throng of peoples
a horde of savagesa regiment of an army/soldiers
a crowd of spectatorsa batch of tourists
a battery of journalistsa crew of sailors


a flight of steps/stairs/airplanesa heap/pile of stones
a bunch of bananas a set /kit of tool
a a library of booksa quiver of arrows
a hedge of bushesa peal of bells
a set of chinaa batch of bread
a suit of chinaa pack of cigarettes
a suit of clothesa sheaf/ears of corn
a cluster of diamonds/starsa galaxy/constallation of stars
a chest of drawersa clutch of eggs
a hail of firea bouqet/bunch of flowers
a collection of stamps/picturesa crate of fruits
a suite of furniturea stack of hay


a swarm of beesa flight of swallows
a flock of birds/sheepa packof wolves/dogs
a herd of cattle/buffaloes/elphantsa brood of chickens
a shoal of fish/herring a gaggle of geese
a stud of horsesa swarm/plague of insect/locust
a litter of kittens/pups/cubsa troop of monkeys/baboons
a nest of mice/rabbits
a team of oxen
a parliament of owls
a school of whales

(Englısh) Describing character (personality)

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– Generous ( a person who likes giving people things, money, help, kindness, etc..).
A: He helps people get their food.
B: Yes! I see. He is so generous.

– Friendly ( a person who is open and warm).
Our neighbor is very friendly to us, he invites us to his home every day.


– Confident ( a person who feels sure about himself/herself and his/her abilities).
I believe he will do the task when he says that because he is confident.

– Hard-working ( a person who puts a lot of effort into his/her work and spends a lot of time on it).
I think they are hard-working volunteers, they work 12 hours a day.


– Lazy ( a person who doesn’t want to work or use any effort).
He is too lazy to walk to work.

– Shy ( a person who can’t talk easily to people he/she doesn’t know).
He was too shy to ask her to dance with him.

– Stupid ( a person who is silly and unwise; showing poor judgment or little intelligence).
She was really stupid to quit her job like that.

– Nervous ( a person who is worried or slightly frightened).
I was nervous during my driving test.



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Leticia: Their salespeople are strange! They really give me the creeps!

Stephanie: They must  be doing something right over.  Anyway… We are  about to go belly-up.

Leticia: I’m really  sorry to hear that! I thought the new books would save the day.

Stephanie: Let’s face it: It doesn’t work! Your idea was a real flop. Never mind… You are fired!

Leticia: Excuse me? You are giving me the ax?



Give one  the creeps – to create a feeling of disgust

There was a man following me. He was giving me the creeps!

Go belly up – to go bankrupt.

My company lost a lot of money last year. I might go belly-up.

Save the day- to prevent a disaster

Our Christmas tree was on fire, but my little sister threw water on it and save the day.

Let’s face it – accept reality

Let’s face it: You are not the right for me!

Real flop – a failure

I was in trouble after what I did to her. It was a real flop!

Give  someone the ax – to fire someone.

Poor Cristal!  She was given the ax three days before Easter.